Insight problems.

The notion of insight has been the topic for debates and investigations for long. Many psychologists still question about the sudden realization of a problem solution. However, as stating in Robinson-Ziegler and Robinson-Riegler (2008), Gestalt assumes that if the problem is restructured, suddenly, a solution is realized. Consequently, Gestalt believes that sudden realization is insight. Nevertheless, Gestalt’s notion of insight is challenged by many other psychologists. They believe that not all problems can be solved in the same way. Even if insight is a reality, insight is not applied to every problem or to everyone. Gilhooly & Murphy (2005) in Robinson-Riegler and Robinson-Riegler differentiate insight and non-insight problems. With non-insight problems, the solutions may come after analysis, step-by-step processing, and perhaps, some arithmetic, and the like. Non-insight problems will be solved through incremental process. They call it “grind out the solution” process. Just look at two followed examples. First, a prisoner plans to escape from his cell that is built at the top story of a tower. He has a piece of rope that is half of the height of the tower. He divides the rope into two parts. How could he do that? This type of problem need an insight solution. Second, a man plan to visit his girl friend, has his teeth checked by dentist, visit a museum, go to a law office. His girl friend works on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The museum closes at weekend. The dentist works only on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. The Law office opens five days a week, from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. When someone can make a schedule for the man to complete all his wish, he already solves a non-insight problem.
In order to solve the insight problems, some psychologists propose two key assumptions: removal of a mistaken assumption and the “Aha” experience. Others assume that intuition and incubation are means to solve the problem. However, all those assumptions are still controversy and in the meantime, and will not lead to a common agreement among all the researchers.
Creativity
When someone can solve insight problems, that person performs his or her creativity. Practically, until today, it is difficult to break out the reasons why someone has creativity while others do not. Therefore, psychologists only focus on the qualifications and the product of creativity. According to Lubart (1994) and Sternberg (2004) in Robinson-Riegler & Robinson-Riegler, creative solution have two components – novelty and appropriateness. Creativity is novel because it is unexpected and alone. It is also appropriateness because the unexpected solution must have ability to solve the problem. For few decades, many experts try to give different meanings to creativity. One of the most appropriate researches comes from Rhodes (1961/1987), who assumes that four dimensions, person, process, press, and product, can attribute to the existence of creativity.
Person. Creativity, somehow, is related to personality of individuals. Creative persons have special characteristics as self-confidence, independence, broad interests, appreciation of complexity, tolerance of ambiguity.. Persons who possesses creativity are flexible to thoughts and different situations.
Process. Creativity, as Smith (2003); Smith, Ward, & Finke (1994) believe, can be either special process or the product of cognitive process.
Press. Persons who are creative receive much press from the society. Creativity depends on social-cultural that has great affection on people.
Product. Depending on each individual, the product of creativity may be art, poem, design, or technology. Michael Angelo, Picasso, Monet.. all have creative talents on arts. Leonardo da Vinci has several creative powers on painting, sculpture, aviation, and technology. Freud’s creativity focuses on philosophy. Einstein pays attention on science. Nowadays, the number of persons with creative talents are great. They help develop the world better and better everyday. Without creativity, the Earth would be a dull place to live on and, of course, will gradually be destroyed when human beings fail to keep up with changes of climates, weather, and living conditions.