Cognitive Processes

Learning is a natural task that all human beings and animals have to perform to develop fuller and better. Toddlers learn to walk step by step. Children learn to use toothbrushes and toilet paper. Adolescents and young adults learn many different topics depending on each individual’s interests. People, in general, learn from classical methods or from their observations. They may learn to get used with some specific disciplines or to ignore some stimulus that they feel that it is not necessary to response to. The learning gained from exposures to stimulus is call Simple Stimulus Learning. However, before a man can apply his learning method, he has to pass through a process called Cognitive Process that, as Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist in decades of 20, defined with eight types: Extroverted Sensing, Introverted Sensing, Extroverted Intuiting, Introverted Intuiting, Extroverted Thinking, Introverted Thinking, Extroverted Feeling, and Introverted Feeling types. (Darens & Nardi, 2004). Among those eights, Introverted Sensing, Extroverted Sensing, and Introverted Intuiting types are the most basic and important ones that need to be discussed carefully prior to studying other topics.

Extroverted Sensing

According to Darens and Nardi (2004),  Jung considered two kinds of perception: sensation and intuition. The sensing process, the ability of the nerve and the brain to receive and react to a stimuli, notified the owner about all tangible information while intuiting was a process of becoming award of conceptual information. Both sensing and intuition could be done in either inner world (introverted) or outer world (extroverted). Normally, in the real world, with extroverted sensing ability, a person experiences the stimulus or the immediate context, takes action in the physical world, notices changes and opportunity for action, accumulates experiences, scans for visible reactions and relevant data, and recognizes “what is”. Extroverted sensing also notices the availability, tries on different items, and sees how they look.(Daren & Nardi, 2004). When an adolescent’s eyes catch something new, immediately, his or her sensibility works to find out how the stimulus look, and what it is. With extraverted  sensing (Se), the focus is on the immediate, sensory possibilities and options for action. (Berens and Rob, 2007).

Generally, sensing means getting information by means of sensing. Jung also called this means the irrational function. He meant that it related to perception rather than intervene with the process of judging of information (Boeree, 2008). When a man senses a strange sense in his room, the first action he takes is to take the sense he is sensing to the portion of the brains where it recognizes things. Many people like to imitate an old philosophical proverb by saying: “It’s there, it exists.”

Introverted Sensing

Continuing the step of extroverted sensing, introverted sensing considers reviewing past experience, comparing “what is” and “what was”, recalling all related incidents, seeking for detailed information and links to past experience, open the “box of memory and impressive information” in the mind, gathering data, and recognizing the way thing have been known for long. For example, when seeing a new model of an ipod, the sensation ability works immediately to find out anything similar to that new ipod in order to know what the new invention is. A lady, when watching the show “American Idol” and sensing that a contestant wearing a fancy dress, the lady immediately senses back to the all the dress she wore and remembers the feeling when she wore that similar dress. Usually, all people have to sense the difference between the old and the new one before making a judgment. There is an exception: if a person has sensing impairment physically, he will find it is hard to make a judgment on both the value and the meaning of a thing.

Also, a notion should be noticed here: the processes of sensing, both extroverted and introverted, are just two steps separated with the process of thinking or judging. They do not represent any other processes besides themselves. According to Carlson and Levy (1973),  “the key typological variables underlying  memory should be preference for extroversion or introversion (the outward or inward  focus of attention and for thinking versus feeling mode of judgment)” (Carlson, 1980).  

Overall, Jung’s theory about introverted and extroverted sensing covered a complex task of remembering. It also supported the value of Jung’s theory as a framework for the memory dynamics. The differences of types were to be found across a numerous kinds of tasks of memorizing.(Carlson, 1980). Besides, the interpersonal thematic content of affective memories are different, too: while extraverted sensing is reported more interpersonal memories of joy, excitement, and shame; introverted sensing is focused on other memories like personal experiences or learned lessons.  

Introverted Intuiting 

Unlike the process of sensing, this process foresees implications and likely effects without external data. It also realizes “what will be”, a future concept. Then, it creates new ways of seeing things or envisions some transformations. Furthermore, it gets an image of profound meaning or far-reaching symbols (Darens & Nardi, 2004). In another word, as Carlson stated, introverted intuition were expected to be more effective in remembering “old” interiorized emotionally neutral material (Carlson, 1980). 

Generally speaking, Jung’s theory showed that sensing types characteristically attend to the clear and observable facts of life. Going beyond the stimulus, intuition perceives the possibilities of future events. (Carlson, 1980). For Jung, intuiting is a kind of perception that works beyond the usual conscious processes. Intuition is like sensing, irrational or perceptual. However, it is not as simple as seeing or hearing; it comes from the complex integration of large amounts of information. Jung proposed that intuition is like seeing around the corner (Boeree, 2008).

To have a clearer explanation of all those three processes, Berens and Rob gave out an example of looking at a forest.

Extroverted Sensing: Noticing the details of the forest such as the number of tree, their color and texture, the contrast of light color and dark color. Noticing about all kinds of animals living in the forest, the names of some rare trees, the path leading from North to South, the mountain behind the forest, the stream running from the mountain to the river next to it. 

Introverted Sensing: Noticing the different of some patterns of trees, remembering about the time spending in there, the occasions to climb on the trees or walk over yellow leaves in Autumn, recalling the sound of the stream at the mid of the jungle, and everything happened in the forest when the viewer was young. The sensation is about the memories, bad ones as well as happy times.

Extroverted Intuiting: Thinking about the value of the forest with rare trees in there. Thinking about the forest in the eco-system and is affected by the smoke from the city. Thinking about the lives of people who live there, the temporary camps, and all accidents happened long time ago. A group of Scout boys were lost due to a swift flood, etc. 






























 Generally, responses to a stimulus are different depending on each individual’s experiences and knowledge. A response of a firefighter to a smoke differently with the response of an uneducated or a civilian. Habituation of an educated man is not similar with of an illiterate one. Likewise, Cognitive processes or perceptual learning are two different subjects for humans at different ages, sexes, and family conditions. They all sense or learn the same thing but do not experience the same results. A boy lives in a rural area will certainly sense about a butterfly differently with a boy who lives in high sky-scraper department does. The intuition of a lady who was born by a couple of  beloved parents will have an intuition that is very different of the intuition owned by a lady who has the same ages but born by a hot-tempered father and a drunk mother. That is why psychology is needed in this world. It is developed in order to give fair, accurate, and equal treatments to people who have mental disorders although their characteristics are all different with each other.  


Carlson, Rae; Studies of Jungian typology: II. Representations of the personal world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 38(5), May 1980. pp. 801-810.

George Boeree, Personality Theories: Carl Jung. 2006. Retrieved on June 29, 2008,


Linda V. Berens and Dario Nardi, Understanding Yourself and Others®: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code (Telos Publications, 2004)

Linda V. Berens and Judy Rob. How to tell Intuiting from sensing. 2007. Retrieved on June 29, 2008 from: